Thursday, June 23, 2016

Batty on HOW INDIANS HUNT - Arms, Horses etc

final fragment from Mr. Batty. This time author gives us his observations, views, prejudices, and finally his understanding of the American Indians and their hunting in general.

 How Indians Hunt

An Indian, notwithstanding his warlike propensities and distinguishing characteristic of cruelty, when in the prime of manhood fully equipped for the chase, is a picture that cannot fail to call forth admiration.

Iron-jointed, supple-sinewed, he mounts his pony, and with bird-like grace and freedom rides at lightning speed, leaping the saddle from side to side in a manner almost incredible to relate. When not under excitement the Indian has a patient, inoffensive look, and one would scarcely think he was capable of committing the cruelest of deeds.

The Indian is a perfect hunter, but not a good shot. He is most patient in waiting for game, and will lie for hours as noiselessly as a cat watching a mouse. The most intense heat of the sun on the plains does not seem to affect him, and he will often lie a whole day at a water hole waiting for game to come to drink. 

Indians hunt more or less in the Summer, but the Great Fall Hunt is the event of the year, and in it they seem to find the most perfect enjoyment and great excitement. At this time meat is killed and cured for Winter use. They hunt but little in Winter, and then chiefly in pleasant weather, going but a short distance from camp, on foot, as the ponies are too thin to carry them.

There are laws in some tribes that forbid an Indian to hunt alone far from camp. If found hunting on the sly, they are soldiered, that is, have their clothes cut to pieces on their return to camp.

They prize a good gun highly, and appreciate the points nearly as well as our own people. The brass-mounted Winchester carbine is their favorite gun for hunting or war. We were quite amused in examining the guns of one Indian camp. Some had the most common of shot guns, cut short like carbines, many had the pea rifles, and occasionally a double-barreled gun was seen; there were many old muzzle-loading Springfield muskets and Spencer carbines, and now and then a Ballard; large bore muzzle-loaders, however, prevailed. Many of the Dakota (Sioux) and Assineboine* warriors carry good Government needle-guns. Sharpens* carbines and brass-mounted Winchester repeating rifles. The stocks of the guns, and their belts and saddles, are ornamented with brass nails driven in every conceivable form. The Sioux and Assineboines are tall and muscular, and look as though they know how to use their guns; they wear canvas and leather cartridge belts like the whites, which are generally well filled with fixed ammunition.

An Indian will barter anything for ammunition, even a valuable robe, or blanket from his back. When I was crossing Montana, Indians came about and tried to trade for cartridges ; it was quite amusing to see them continually show their empty cartridge belts (which had been cleaned for the occasion) and urge our party to trade. They offered pemmican, jerked meat, robes, skins, gun cases, moccasins, and tobacco bags ornamented with porcupine quills and beads, and filled with Kinnikinic*. I had a heavy belt of the extra long central fire cartridges with patched balls, which were new to them; pulling out a ball from a cartridge and handing it to a buck, he examined it carefully, passed it to his comrades, then returned it with a grunt of satisfaction and uttered the word ** wash-ta" (good).

Some Indians foolishly chew their bullets until they are so rough they can scarcely be forced down a rifle. I told one Indian that it was "bad medicine," and the bullet would not go straight; he took a badly marred ball from his pouch, pointed to it and said, " good medicine, heap kill deer."

They accepted fire-arms rather doubtfully at first, but now nearly all Indians possess one of some description.

There were two kinds of bows used by the aborigines: the short stiff bow for buffalo and war, and the long bow for small game. The latter is seldom used now among the Northern Indians, they preferring the short bow, as it is more easily carried when riding in the hunt or fight. The Eastern Indians used the long bow; the Seminoles used one of medium length, between the long and buffalo bow.

All good Indian bows are strengthened by sinew, which are stretched lengthwise, and around them. The sinew from the back of the buffalo is generally used, as it is long, flat and fibrous, and can be split into any width of band, or size of thread.

The heavy bows have broad strips of sinew put on them longitudinally, and are cross wound over with shaganapa* or rawhide, and fine sinew.

The arrow heads and feathers are fastened to the shafts with the same material.
There are two styles of arrow heads, the long for buffalo and the short for general use. The flint-arrow head has disappeared among all the tribes I have seen.

Arrows are deeply notched to receive the heavy rawhide string of the bow, and their ends spread, to prevent their slipping from the hunter's grasp. The Indian hunter prizes his bow as much as a rifle, and it is a difficult matter to buy one, without paying a fabulous price. 

The bow is used with great care and carried in a cover of leather or fur.
Indians often make bow cases from the skins of their dogs, but some of the great warriors have covers made of otter skins. A large otter skin with a perfect tail to protect the bow is invaluable. Skins of albino animals are also highly prized for quivers and bowcases, and the skin of the white buffalo — more common than is generally supposed — is considered " good medicine ;" they think the Walkatonka* or Great Spirit, favors those who wear them.

Quivers are also made of leather and fur skins, ornamented with beads, colored porcupine quills and fringe, and are usually strung from the right shoulder.
The short bow is a very effective weapon in close quarters, and with it the average Indian can discount all breech-loading rifles, except a repeater.

An Indian will bury several arrows in a buffalo in a few moments; and a dozen or more of them armed with bows, in ambush, will make lively work for a party of whites. Whether the Northern Indians have ever used poisoned arrows or not I am unable to state; I have questioned many about them, also trappers and interpreters, and have found no clue to their having been used. Many suppose that the arrows were poisoned with the venom of the rattlesnake, but the Indians are so superstitious relative to killing it, that I do not think the belief authentic. They never fire at one, saying it is "bad medicine," and will spoil their guns.

The young bucks and papooses make bows and arrows of every description, and are continually practising at birds.

[Indian pony] The Indians hunt more on horseback than any other way, and the endurance of their ponies is wonderful. Although in constant companionship, the Indian has not the least feeling for his pony, and shamefully neglects and abuses him. He is never stabled, blanketed, curried, or even fed. Saddles are strapped on mercilessly, and the pony is ridden cruelly ; if his back be torn and lacerated at night, he is turned into the herd without a thought, and forced under the same saddle the next day. In Winter they have very little food, and become almost skeletons, and were it not for the branches and bark that the squaws cut from the cotton-wood tree they would die of hunger ; as it is, they are pitiable objects with their shabby coats and extended hips; but when Spring comes and food is plenty, their transformation is wonderful, and they are ready to perform the cruel tasks of their remorseless masters. Although a slave to the Indian, it is a singular fact, that stabled and fed in the hands of a white, 'the pony becomes stubborn and even dangerous ; like many of the human family, prosperity does not agree with him.

[Indian Dogs] 

It is generally supposed that Indians never make use of dogs in hunting, but do their own driving on foot; there are, however, some tribes that use dogs success- fully in the chase. The Chippewa Indians surround a favorite feeding ground of the deer, and one of their number turns the dogs loose in the centre. Some of them are well trained, and hunt independently of each other, and several deer are often killed at one drive. The number engaged in the hunt is regulated according to the number of runways to be manned. Large parties often split up and hunt in localities suited to their number. The Chippewas occasionally still-hunt singly, having trails cut through their hunting grounds as nearly parallel as possible; there are then no twigs to obstruct the view, or dead sticks to crack and alarm the game.

A great number of dogs are seen in every Indian village, though we saw more with the Crows than with any other tribe. There are no pure blooded dogs, nearly all being crossed with the wolf. 

In the Winter they are disconsolate, half starved looking creatures, but during the buffalo season they fare sumptuously and become very fat. These dogs fight savagely, much to the delight of the young bucks, who never separate them, but let them fight it out. The Indians make an article of food of their dogs, and tan their skins for mats. They also use them to haul sledges and carry light packs

*original spelling

Wednesday, June 22, 2016


Joseph Batty wrote on How Indians Hunt the Buffalo [on horseback and in 1870s].
Hopefully in the future I will provide more primary accounts describing the bison hunting techniques of the Great Plains tribal peoples:

Were it not for the buffalo, the Indians of the southern plains would be deprived of food, and also of bedding, clothing and teepies which the skins furnish ; even now there is so much hunting by the Whites that the number of buffalo are greatly reduced, and the Indian's comfort, comparatively speaking, is already gone. On the northern plains they remain yet in greater numbers, but their final destruction is inevitable everywhere.

The Great Fall Hunt

" The great Fall hunt " is the Indian's harvest and annual feast. 
Never is he in such good spirits, never does he hunt with such excitement, and never is his insatiable appetite so gratified.
 In September, bands start out well provided with teepies, guns, ammunition and horses. They travel sometimes hundreds of miles before reaching a buffalo country, camping each night when darkness overtakes them. When finally reaching a place where buffalo are known to abound, runners are sent out to sight them. When they return with good news, the Indians, anticipating the hunt, are thrown into great commotion; they strip themselves of all clothing except breech clout, and moccasins, and some deck themselves with feather head-dresses. 

Saddles are removed from ponies and riding pads substituted. 
Young bucks are sent out to choose desirable camping ground near water, and when a place is decided upon, squaws and trappings are sent for. The squaws get up the teepies, erect scaffolds for drying meat, and make all preparations needful to camp comfortably. 
The hunters that have started on their ponies ride until a favorable herd of buffalo is dis- covered, then, as well as diversity of country will admit, they slowly surround them at a distance. It is seemingly understood that they shall all dash forward after a certain length of time, and they come in a fury of speed, yelling inhumanly, and shouting the "whey! whey! whey !" to their horses. 

Each Indian singles a buffalo and follows it in every direction, and the form of the surround is lost. So perfectly trained is the pony, and so skilled in hunting is the Indian, that in every effort to turn or get away, the buffalo is pursued as it were in shadow, and unto death. When the first buffalo falls, the Indian looks forward, and if any scattering ones are seen, a second chase ensues. Old men and young bucks not engaged in the fight stand at specified distances with extra horses, and when those in the chase give out, the rider drives up to those. in reserve and exchanges. 

The hunting is done as near camp as possible, and the squaws are sent for to skin and dress the buffalo that have fallen within reason- able distance. Each of the animals too far away to be reached, are partially skinned by the Indian who has killed them, and they will often tear the liver and heart from a buffalo while warm, and devour it with the relish of wild beasts; the best meat is cut out in flakes, and piled and tied on the ponies. They are cruelly overladen, and the meat hangs so low on each side that it usually drags upon the ground, gathering much dirt, which is never removed, but allowed to dry in ; then, as if the poor pony was not sufficiently loaded, the Indian takes his seat upon the top of the meat and rides to camp, the pony staggering beneath the load. Both pony and rider become saturated with blood, and neither are ever cleaned. If the chase has been a successful one, the remains of partially dressed buffalos are left; but if not, they return, and the carcass is cleaned and meat taken to camp. Sometimes those who have not been successful in the chase will assist others in dressing game. 

At night a great feast commences, in which men, squaws, bucks, children, and even the dogs participate. Singing, dancing and wild games are enjoyed, and the most immoderate eating that man or beast could be guilty of is indulged in. The intestines of the buffalo are considered the choicest parts, and are devoured by the Indians in a most disgusting fashion. They often eat, at this feast, the greater portion of the choicest meat of the first day's hunt, but on the second day and afterwards, meat is prepared for the Winter. 
Day after day the hunt is continued, a chase often being six miles long, until meat enough has been obtained for the Winter, or until intense weather puts an end to the sport.
The squaws do all the drudgery; they prepare the meat, and hang it on the scaffolds to dry. In damp weather it is often partially smoked by fires being made beneath it when drying. The squaws often skin the buffalo, and always dress and tan the robes. Few skins are used early in the season, except for teepies and lodges.
When the Winter coat of the buffalo is half grown, it is at its best, and the squaws begin to tan robes for trade and their own use. Very strong lariats are woven by the Indians, out of the fine hair from the fore shoulders of buffalo, for which they get fabulous prices.
Some Indians use the army revolver in the hunt, some the carbine or Winchester rifle, while others use the bow. 
A warrior snatches an arrow from his quiver over the shoulder, springs the bow with a magic hand, and in an instant buries the arrow to the feathers in the flesh of the buffalo. 
The arrows are marked in colors near the feathers, so that each can be recognized, and the game claimed by the owner of the one which, by its position, indicates that death was caused. 

Images are from Wikimedia Commons and are photos of paintings done during the XIX century - Alfred Jacob Miller, George Catlin, John Mix Stanley, Paul Kane & Karl Bodmer.

Monday, June 20, 2016

Batty & bison hunting 2

'Mister' Joe Batty back in the saddle, so to speak:

HOW TO HUNT [Buffalo]*
Buffalo are hunted in two ways
they are still-hunted on foot with a heavy rifle, 
run with horses and shot with the carbine, army revolver, or Winchester repeating rifle. 
It is a much more difficult matter to shoot well when mounted than on foot; rifles should not be cocked until an instant before discharging, and the finger must not rest upon the trigger except at the moment of action. Unless these rules are carefully observed, and the utmost caution taken, sudden movements and irregular motions in riding, will sometimes cause the gun to discharge, and the rider to shoot his own horse. In general shooting, hit the game high in the shoulder. Most of the hunters who shoot for market, stalk the game and fire at long range with the heavy Sharpe's rifle.[article on the 1863 and 1874 models]

The large American horse is a rough rider, and unless thoroughly broken to the sight of buffalo, and perfectly trained to rough ground, is liable to stumble, and throw one over his head at any moment. 

There is but little danger with the Indian pony ; he runs securely and smoothly, and knows how to " lay aside " a buffalo as well as his rider does. The most comfortable way to be mounted is Indian fashion, with double pad resting each side of the pony's spine, as a substitute for a saddle [apishamore]. Moccasins keep the feet from slipping, and enable one to retain his seat with ease. If a saddle is used, the Spanish saddle with the California tree is the easiest ridden and the safest known. With the McClellan saddle, one frequently gets unhorsed; it answers, however, for ordinary riding.
When preparing for the hunt, saddle-bags and blankets are removed from the horses, and saddles are cinched tightly; the hunter then straps a well filled cartridge belt around his waist, seizes his weapon, mounts his pony, and is ready for the run.

It is quite a feat to shoot successfully from a horse's back, when on a dead run, and one should not attempt it unless he has been long accustomed to the saddle.
When making a surround, the herd is usually sighted from a distance, and the hunters approach from the bottoms, or " coolies ;" it takes considerable time, but is generally successful if managed by veteran hunters. Should the herd become alarmed and stampede before the surround is completed, the hunters rush from concealment and endeavor to turn the herd. Then follows an exciting moment; the yelling of the hunters, rapid running and thundering tread of the buffalo, and constant reports of the guns, with horsemen half visible in a cloud of dust, form a strange, wild and exciting scene, that must be seen from a distance to be appreciated. When one is in the excitement of the chase, he can have no idea of general effect ; he singles out his buffalo, and runs it to the death, and should the chase be a short one, he heads another band and obtains a second run. Buffalo usually fall on their knees with
the fore legs doubled under, and often one horn is buried in the ground. After the hunt, the hunters are called together by signal, and proceed to dress the game.
If the skins are saved they are taken off flat, like cattle hides, salted (except in cold weather), then stretched on the ground, driving stakes through holes in the edges ; but if the flesh only is used, the best of it is cut in flakes and the horses are packed with as much as they can carry. When killed for the market, they are quartered with the skins on, and wagons are used for their transportation.

*American bison

Sunday, June 19, 2016

Słownik terminów hipologicznych używanych w Polsce XVI-XVII w. etc

jak już pisałem w poprzednim poście w temacie tej publikacji z Napoleon V przeglądam sobie Słownik terminów hipologicznych (dalej Słownik) z uwagą, i czytając hasła dziwię się czasem, nieraz zachwycam, a czasem oburzam, a innym razem nie wiem co sadzić. Nie jest lekko z hipologią staropolską.
Cóż, nie można niestety stwierdzić nic z pewnością o proweniencji podanych definicji w Słowniku z powodu braku przypisu źródłowego lub choćby tytułu zbioru etc z którego pochodzi hasło oraz jego wyjaśnienie etc.
Na ten przykład mamy hasło -
''Jątewka'', w nawiasie autor podaje -  'staropolskie*' ''jątew'' ( strona 45)
autor twierdzi w wyjaśnieniu ze to 'spokrewniona, siostrzana klacz zwykle po tym samym ogierze'.
W celu poszukiwania wyjaśnień na necie udałem się do google et tutti quanti, et wyniki poszukiwań dają zero rezultatów  jeśli chodzi o hasło  'jątewka/jątew'.
 Caveat -  jest światło w tunelu :)
bo Google natrętnie pokazuje żebym poszukał jątrew, i tedy szukam;
Szukanie hasla 'jątrew' daje ponad 300 wyników.
Nolens volens najpierw wskoczyłem na stronę wikiźródła, do ''Encyklopedii staropolskiej'' - a tamże stoi:

Jątrew, jątrewka, bratowa, t. j. żona brata rodzonego lub przyrodniego. Stryjkowski pisze w kronice Litwy: „Dowmunt, widząc jątrew i bratową swoję, księżnę Narymuntową, wziął ją sobie gwałtem za żonę.“
Później na stronie Wikislownik - tamże hasło jątrew jest 'rozpisana' na detale.

Później udałem się do bibliotek cyfrowych i słowników na linii (google nie podaje do nich linków) 
We wersji elektronicznej Słownika staropolskiego pod red. S. Urbańczyka (11 tomów, Kraków 1953-2002), można zobaczyć wyjaśnienie  słowa i obfity materiał źródłowy za okres X wiek po AD1500: (via skan)

 'Słownik polszczyzny XVI wieku T. 9: Iskać - Jużyna' podaje (skan ze stron):

I co tu sądzić, mościjewy? Nic o koniach!  za to o żonie brata dzisiaj zwanej bratową - :)
ale jak mawiał mości Wołodyjowski u Sienkiewicza, nic to!
Tak tez szukamy dalej, bo dość ciekawa to zabawa intelektualna, choć 'Słownik' bałamuci i omamia, na manowce wysyłając.
Może autor poda źródło tajemniczego hasła 'jątewka' w następnej edycji 'Słownika', jeśli takowa będzie?
W każdym razie casus zadziwiających haseł i definicji zawartych w Słowniku będzie kontynuowany, jak Bog da czli ojala! 
*gwoli wyjaśnienia, to autor nigdzie nie wyjaśnia co oznacza termin 'staropolski/a' w jego 'Słowniku'

Wednesday, June 15, 2016

Batty on bison hunting 1

I used to live on the Great Plains, and I love the sight of the bison herd in a distance along with antelopes and coyotes - :) .
I buy commercially raised bison meat, and enjoy many a bison stew or grilled chop.
I have decided to publish some accounts of the historic bison, and I will start with the one provided by our taxidermist Joseph H. Batty.

Joe Batty, in How to Hunt and Trap, spent some time on describing the American Bison (he calls it buffalo) and methods of hunting the animal. Horses figure high in this description, the native hunters too. Batty was writing at the end of the era, as the once vast bison herds had been hunted into oblivion during the 1870s and 1880s. It was saved from extinction by the efforts of the American conservationists, scientists and many dedicated people.
The description includes a 1709 report by John Lawson, which is a very early English testimony about the bison. In the future I shall provide more historical accounts on bison, its hunting and the role of horses.
Bison, wood and plains, original range

Bison hunting

The buffalo with his humped back, shaggy head, intent eye, and giant proportions, is a formidable creature to look at, but his appearance does not represent his nature, as he never attacks except when wounded and in self- defense. He has been hunted for two centuries, and for the past twenty years mercilessly and wantonly. The cows have been slaughtered until they are far out-numbered by the bulls, and the time is not far distant when the buffalo will exist in tradition only.
Buffalo are now found on the great plains between the Missouri river and the Rocky Mountains, north into the British Provinces, and south into the Southern United States. Their resting ground is the mountainous and hilly country on the upper Missouri river, where large herds and scattering bands escape the merciless fire of the Indians. The buffalo once ranged as far East as the Carolinas, as may be seen by the following report of John Lawson, Surveyor General of North Carolina, in 1709 :
" The buffalo is a wild beast of America, which has a bunch on his back, as the cattle of St. Lawrence are said to have. He seldom appears amongst the English inhabitants, his chief haunt being in the land of Mississipi*, which is for the most part a plain country; yet I have known some killed on the hilly part of Cape Fair river, they passing the ledges of vast mountains from the said Mississipi, before they came near us. I have eaten of their meat, but do not think it so good as our own beef; yet the younger calves are cry'd up for excellent food, as very likely they may be. It is conjectured that these buffalos, mixed in breed with our tame cattle, would much better the breed for largeness and milk, which seems very probable. Of the wild bull's skin, buff is made. The Indians cut the skins for the ease of their transportation, and make beds to lie on. They spin the hair into garters, girdles, sashes, and the like, it being long and curled, and often a chestnut or red color. These monsters are found to weigh (as I am informed by a traveler of credit) from 1,6oo to 2,400 weight."  
In the distance the buffalo looks black, and their huge forms, when viewed sideways, appear immensely large. Their heads are carried low, and when retreating, their bodies appear small, but as soon as they turn broadside, and stop to look back, they suddenly loom up into gigantic proportions, often tempting the hunter to shoot when far out of range. The buffalo's endurance is so great that he will use up two ponies on a long moderate chase. They fear a mounted hunter more than any other object, and always retreat when seeing one, unless at a great distance. Any unusual object attracts the attention of stragglers, and they will often advance within long rifle range of a covered wagon. They exhibit great curiosity at times, and solitary old bulls can sometimes be " flagged " like antelope. The habits of the buffalo are varied, and become more so each year. Every season's hunt makes them more suspicious, and their range more contracted. They winter much further north than formerly, and the Wolfers often kill them in the dead of Winter nearly to the forty-ninth parallel. In this northern country they often perish from cold and hunger, and get snowed in, in the gullies of the mountains where they have gone to get out of the piercing cold winds and driving snow. I have found their skeletons in large numbers, lying so closely as to touch each other in several passes in the northern Rocky Mountains. Were it not for the hills of the prairie kept bare by the driving winds, and the scant browsing in the bottoms, the buffalo would be compelled to winter further south, or perish. During the Summer they select the most fertile localities, and if unmolested, feed quietly in scattering herds ; often standing side by side, brushing away the flies, or lying peacefully in the shade, like domestic cattle. 
When feeding and migrating, the rear portion of a herd continually crowd those ahead, and push forward, snatching the tufts of grass as they pass; when their hunger is appeased, they fall back, and are succeeded by others, who in their turn jostle and push until all pause to rest. The country over which a large herd has passed is left entirely bare, with the exception of the numberless "chips." When a band comes suddenly upon a hunter, they crowd to the right and left, forcing open a V shaped space, which rapidly grows larger until the buffalo are passing about fifty yards distant on each side ; they then close behind him in the same manner, leaving him in the centre of a diamond-shaped space. 
The run of the buffalo is a slow, heavy gallop, or lope, which is greatly increased in speed when they are pursued. A continual crowding and jostling is characteristic of a retreating band, many striving to force their way into the centre for safety ; the old bulls run scatteringly on the outside of the herd, and will sometimes stop, rub their noses in the dust, scrape the ground with the fore feet, watch the hunter a moment, then gallop off again. Th« calves run by the side of the cows, and often under them; they keep pace with the herd without difficulty, and it seems wonderful that they are not trampled to death. 
Buffalos run down hill without slacking their headlong speed, which the pursuing hunter is unable to do, as his pony has to travel at a slower pace ; when ascending, the buffalo travel much more slowly, and the pony, can then gain on them rapidly. The cows are the fastest runners, and it requires a nimble pony and a good rider to overtake them. Herds should be surprised, if possible; the hunter can then spur his pony into the band at the beginning; should they have the start, follow leisurely until reaching an ascent, then urge the pony to his utmost speed, and make a spurt, to and among them, or the chase will be a fruitless one. In September their flesh is at its best and the weather pleasant for camping, but their skins are not of much value until November, from which time till January they improve in quality.
*original spelling
American Bison Society - their 1905-1907 report on saving the bison
American bison - basic facts from the Defenders of Wildlife
Wikipedia on Bison
Wikipedia on Bison hunting  

Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Krytyka 'Hubala'

o powieść Jacka Komudy  napisałem notkę na blogu. Jak już wiemy jest to otwór fikcyjny literacki ale oparty o znane fakty o ostatnich 7 miesiącach życia Henryka Dobrzańskiego. Dość swawolna i fantastyczna, miejscami, wizja Hubalowskiej epopei piórem autora, bądź co bądź twórcy wielu quasi-fantastycznych powieści staropolskich, wygenerowała krytykę ze strony miłośników historii et legendy majora Hubala.
   Ergo, strona o Hubalu, , opublikowała tekst pani Ewy Pawlus pt 'Paszkwil na Hubala' (oryginalnie opublikowany na  blogu autorki), który jest raczej ostrą krytyką powieści pana Jacka, zarzucając głownie nieprawdziwość lub nieprawdopodobieństwo następujących wydarzeń z opowieści:
1. uczynienie z majora mordercy Niemców po walce pod Wolą Chodkowską
2. wyjazd majora w pełnym mundurze i hasanie po Warszawie bez opamiętania na realia okupowanej stolicy
3. buntowniczość, awanturniczość i warcholstwo majora wobec dowódców WP i później organizacji konspiracyjnej
4. zniedołężniały dowódcy 110 pułku pułkownika Dąmbrowskiego  we wrzesniu 1939 roku
5. nadmierny erotyzm, w tym  amory z Marianną Cel „Tereską” w przeddzień śmierci majora.

6. kon-duch 'Bohatyr'

7. i parę innych

Można nie polubić wizji historii Hubala stworzonej przez autora, ale chyba nie można polemizować z licentia poetica tego utworu literackiego, ba! nawet sama pani krytyk przyznaje, ze dialogi powieściowe  tutaj są mocna strona i dobrze oddają język wojskowy epoki.

Faktem jest że opisana w powieści pacyfikacja Ruskiego Brodu nie miała miejsca, ani że nie Hubal nie wygrał zawodów hipicznych na Olimpiadzie w Nicei, bo takowej olimpiady nie było. Ale są to rzeczy typu licentia poetica, i nalezą one do stworzonego przez autora świata, który  nie może być i nie jest wiwisekcja historyczną, ale wizją fabularną czyli  fikcyjną per se.
Wizja fabularna dziejow majora jaki i wizja świata okupowanej Polski 1939-40 której dostarcza nam ta powieść jest li tylko autorska koncepcja mości Jacka i jako taka  jest to li tylko 'licentia poetica'  i ciągle to trzeba podkreślać; i dlatego myślę, ze nie trzeba próbować robić z powieści która w swej naturze jest utworem literackim zmyślonym/fikcyjnym pracy naukowej historycznej, bo taką żadna powieść nie jest ani w zamyśle, ani w gatunku.
Tedy zarzuty o przeinaczanie faktów czy zmyślanie wydarzeń pozostaną jedynie głuchym wołaniem na puszczy.
De gustibus et coloribus non disputandum est

Sunday, June 12, 2016

Mule and Indian Pony

I was looking at some Americana on the Archive website, and came across two books by Joseph H. Batty.

The following biographical note comes from the one on the practical taxidermy:

   Well, in the book on hunting (first published in 1879) there is a chapter on mules and native Indian ponies used in the hunting expeditions in the Western American wilderness during the 1870s and 1880s.
It is quite interesting and I am happy to share it with you:
                                                         ''HOW TO HUNT AND TRAP''
                                                                    CHAPTER III.

                                                              MULES AND HORSES.

An Irishman spoke truthfully when he said, " The hunter's best horse is a mule;" and the great prejudice that people have against them arises more from ignorance of their natures than any other cause. Mules are kind, gentle, and easily managed, and after long usage one becomes much attached to them. A quick, long-legged mule, of medium size, will, if carefully trained, make a useful animal, and has the human trait of liking to be persuaded rather than driven. All dumb beasts will, in their way, express much gratitude, and usually serve a considerate master faithfully. A mule that has been abused is always jerking his head about as if expecting each moment to be struck.

In the mountains a mule will outclimb or outpack a pony, and keep fat on the poorest of food. Mules eat an incredible quantity of grass, and their accommodating sides expand to make space for any amount ; indeed, the exact capacity of their stomachs is something that has never been fully calculated. A packer is often in a state of despair on finding a cincho* a foot or so short, that a few hours before was slack.

A good mule will pick his way over loose stones, fallen timber and rocks ; shows great sagacity in fording rapid rivers with uncertain bottoms, and with free rein will take a bewildered hunter to camp through storm and darkness. When mounted and still-hunting, every stick and stone is avoided, fallen timber is crossed without the sound of a misplaced hoof, and the hunter is carried silently over all kinds of surfaces. The best trails are chosen, and with large ears "pricked," the mule stands instinctively at sight of game and gives chance for a good shot. Some will stand fire remarkably well and pack warm game without a tremor; others will become violent, and on seeing dead game or smelling blood, will buck and kick furiously. All mules are affected by the smell of a bear. We had a great struggle with one while packing the skeleton and skin of a grizzly ; he resisted very strongly during the first few days of travel, but finally carried the load four hundred miles. Most mules are slow travelers, but occasionally a fast one is found. Recently a hunter in Montana owned one that would catch a bull buffalo; the cows, however, were too much for him. When riding a mule, a broad cincho* and wide crouper is needed, as the saddle is inclined to slip forward and turn, particularly when going down hill.

A mule that insists upon being lazy can scarcely be spurred into activity; with a good leader they will sometimes quicken their pace, as they do not like to be left behind. The high tempered Mexicans must have great skill in managing them, as they have not the patience to wait their motions. They are very powerful when frightened, and require the full strength of a lariat to keep them in place when away from the herd, A small mule walked into camp one day dragging a good sized pine tree, to which he had been tied four miles distant, and we greeted the rider a few hours after as he came in sight with the saddle on his shoulder. They have great confidence in a horse, and will often follow him in single file when it would be impossible to drive them. When large mounted parties are hunting, a bell mare is picketed, and the other animals will not leave her unless the feed is very poor. Mules known in Western parlance as buck mules, excel some horses in real beauty; their plump quarters, tapering legs, small hoofs and glossy coat, with the characteristic black stripe down the back, make them attractive animals.

Mules are easily frightened into a stampede ; they are much given to rolling, and will often do so when packed for a march.

Indian ponies are the horses usually used by hunters. They are scarcely fourteen hands high, of rather light build, and have bright, intelligent eyes. Indians have a faculty of getting a great deal of work out of them, and the ponies, in their hands, are at all tireless submissive; when managed by the whites, they become stubborn and lazy, and the mule is more generally preferred.
These ponies are good travelers, have greater power of endurance than the American horses, and are useful in many cases; they should not be run too hard or loaded
too heavily; and when climbing a mountain side, they should be tacked up to lessen the angle of ascent, and give sure footing. When trails are rough, and obstructed
with rocks and fallen timber, the ponies should be dismounted and led by taking the rein over the arm. In attempting to pull they often become stubborn and unmanageable. Faulty management has ruined many horses and mules. When they attempt to draw away at the end of the rein it is advisable not to pull forcibly, particularly if a curb bit is used, as they always resist it. All riding animals
are often urged over too great a distance without food. They should be allowed to stop and feed occasionally, if only for a few moments. A herd must be watched and
not allowed to drink too much alkaline water, or rush for water into quicksands; in many places on the upper Missouri the soil is so treacherous that it is impossible to lead stock to water.

In picketing a horse, a lariat, about thirty-five or forty feet long, should be
used. It should be tied rather tightly to prevent its slipping and choking him; it will also keep his feet from getting through when brushing flies from neck and ears. The foot, when once through, is not easily withdrawn, and often causes a severe struggle; when a horse is sharp-shod his head and neck sometimes become
so badly lacerated, that he will bleed to death, or strangle from the effects
of the rope and the swelling o£ the wounded parts. The iron picket pin, with a swivel and four concave sides, is light of weight and very secure.

Some ponies ride easy; others, a little knee sprung, will more than settle a man's dinner when going down hill; when cantering on level ground, however, their defective gait is no inconvenience.

Speed is one quality which makes a horse preferable to the mule ; he can hunt the buffalo, and take the hunter quickly to camp; he will not stampede as easily as the
mule, and will stand fire better.

*Cincho obviously is a cinch or girth strap 

Thursday, June 9, 2016

Some interesting video links

just some videos to share with you all 
 Mr. Sheperd Paine, passed away in August 2015, was a great master of historical miniature art - and there is this nice tribute to His art available on youtube for all to see and enjoy.
Keep in mind that:
 'In that spirit and per his[Sheperd Paine]  wishes, the MMSI has established the Shep Paine Education Fund, which is accepting tax-deductible donations in his honor to continue his invaluable work as an educator and proselytizer for the art of miniatures via classes, seminars, and other projects. Contributions to this dedicated fund can be made via PayPal at or by mail to The Shep Paine Education Fund care of MMSI Treasurer Tom Surlak, 3136 Secretariat Dr., Aurora, IL 60602.'

Several outstanding horsearchers from Polskie Stowarzyszenie Lucznictwa Konnego ( Matuesz Gieryn et Michał Sanczenko, Michał Szubski i Michał Tomaszewski ) and stuntmen from Poland took part in the Bollywood production titled Mirzya - teaser trailer here
this the interview with them (in Polish) - they rode Kathiawari horses in the film - filmed at more than 3000meters above sea levels altitude,  (differences between Kathiawari and Marwari horses in this article)
From M. Horace Hayes - Points of Horse (circa 1893):

Caveat! if you watch the second video provided on the page in this link, then you could see the world's best horsearcher Anna Sokólska in action :) (her saddle seen in the video was made by Mr. Plachecki - link to his shop )

Wednesday, June 8, 2016

Słownik terminów hipologicznych używanych w Polsce XVI-XVII w

Wasze Miłości - 
parę dni temu otrzymałem zakupiony via internet egzemplarz książki ''Słownik terminów hipologicznych używanych w Polsce XVI-XVII w.''  - wydany gdzieś w Marcu 2016 przez Napoleon V.  Autor , znany gawędziarz, jeździec, historyk-amator, rzemieslnik-rekonstruktor i artysta, pojawił się już był na mym blogu.

Przykłady haseł et ilustracji etc na stronie wydawcy Napoleon V.

W każdym razie powitałem wieści o publikacji Słownika z radością i ...niejakim drżeniem serca, bo autor notorycznie unika niewygodnych źródeł w swych wypisach np,  ma skrzywienie na lekka jazdę w epoce Rzeczpospolitej, także na Knyszyńska stadninę,  i jest fanem jarczaka na każda porę - :) i ... cóż mogę rzec po przejrzeniu wielu haseł, otóż , wydaje mi się, ze jest bardzo źle jeśli chodzi o merytoryczny aspekt tego Słownika
W sumie to zupełnie nie rozumiem ograniczenia zakresu czasowego do XVI-XVII wieków, kiedy przecież nasza staropolska terminologia żyła sobie w najlepsze jeszcze w XIX wieku, ale dla zgody można spokojnie przyjąć, że wiek XVIII też należny do tej epoki - czyli okres Królestwa Jagiellońskiego et Rzeczpospolitej Obojga Narodów. Niestety ze wstępu ('Od Autora') się dowiemy jedynie, ze 'nie sposób  uznać niniejszą prace za ukończona'.

Dlatego przyznam się, że nie wiem, czy będę chciał brać się za pisanie prawidłowej recenzji, bo może lepiej zostawić i pominąć milczeniem te niedopracowane (że użyje łagodnego przymiotnika), źle wydane (  np zła jakość wydruku rysunków autora, które miejscami są ciekawe i a przede wszystkim wyjaśniają koncepty autorskie), i bez żadnego widocznego aparatu  naukowego 'dziełko'... a może lepiej, dla mnie, będzie skoncentrować się na samych hasłach tamże zawartych i je 'rozebrać' na kawałki via źródła et literatura.
Sama ikonografia - wszystkie ilustracje zdają się być autorskimi, tj albo narysowane piórkiem (jedna tylko namalowana, ale wydana jako czarno-biała - tutaj w kolorze) przez autora lub przerysowane z innych źródeł (dodam czasem dość dowolnie). Wśród ilustracji jest trochę wielkich znaków zapytania - np uździenica na stronie 97 (jaka jest proweniencja źródłowa tego rysunku Bóg i autor jeno wiedzą). Ale w sumie ilustracje są mocna strona Słownika.

Po szybkim przejrzeniu słownika to zdecydowanie moim 'ulubieńcem'  jest hasło 'Bachmatek' (strona 10), zaraz poniżej haseł 'Bachmacik' i 'Bachmat'

 - bachmatek- hasło autor zdefiniował i nawet zilustrował rysunkiem [sic] na stronie sąsiadującej (strona 11):
'lekkie, skromne drewniane siodełko[sic!] pokryte skora' - i w dalszej części hasła podpiera się następującym cytatem  (bez podania autora czy dzieła z którego  ów fragment był wzięty) z dziwnym dodatkiem "(jarczak)
 'podobny był do bachmatka, i łączek na nim goły, tylko powleczony na kształt mody tatarskiej'' 
Otóż ... ten fragment pochodzi z Pamiętników pana Jana Chryzostoma Paska, [choć autor ani tutaj ani nigdzie indziej nie podaje tytułów/autorów żadnych materiałów źródłowych w całej książce] - ale tam żaden 'jarczak' nie występuje
W każdym razie pełniejszy cytat stoi u Paska co następuje: 
''Ale jak obaczyli szkapę, co go wziął pana pachołek w krzakach, co też to od niego ktoś uciekł, uwierzyli dopiero; bo też podobny był do bachmatka i łączek na nim goły, skórką tylko powleczony na kształt mody tatarskiej [1]' - z którego jasno wynika, ze chodzi o konia bachmata (zdrobniale -funkcja deminutywna- nazwanego 'bachmatkiem') a nie o typ siodła staropolskiego ( zdaje się, że albo autor Słownika nie rozumie języka staropolskiego, albo nie chce czytać źródeł prima facie dopisując swoja wersje etc)...
 nota bene ten  'łączek' z cytatu tez ma swoje osobne hasło - 'staropolska nazwa łęku tylnego' [sic!]
Ergo, czyżby mamy tutaj casus koń by się uśmiał ..pod wąsem? 

ano zobaczymy, przyglądając się niektórym hasłom na lamach tego blogu. 
 tutaj pełny fragment  Pamiętników, rozdział 'Rok pański 1672' na 'wikiźródłach' - patrz przypis 46 i 47 w tekście rozdziału z Pamiętników .
staropolskie określenia hipologiczne, które wczoraj wypisałem z mości Adolfa Dygasińskiego również pojawiają się w hasłach Słownika.  
ps' -
ilustracja pochodzi ze strony wydawcy i jest na okładce  Słownika.

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Starokladrubský kůň

żeglując po internecie doszedłem przez przypadek do artykułu Józefa (Adolfa) Dygasińskiego o koniu kladrubskim i stadninie w Kladrubach. nad górna Łaba w Czechach.
Artykuł ukazał się w Tygodniku Illustrowanym, Nr 23 (ogólnego zbioru nr 2.067), z 3 czerwca (22 maja) 1899. - pod tytułem ''Stado gniazdo w Kladrubach''.
Mości Dygasiński był ówczas znanym pisarzem i eseista, ważnym twórca a jego twórczość integralna częścią w rozwijającej się pod zaborami literatury polskiej II polowy XX wieku, i 'gołym okiem' widać mistrzostwo pióra, łatwość pisania jak i znajomość tematu końskiego u autora.
Sam artykuł jest pełen dojrzałego pięknego języka literackiego, jak i mieszanki konceptów i terminów hipologicznych staropolskich jaki i tych używanych w końcu XIX wieku. [1]

Oprócz pięknego języka polskiego, artykulis zawiera wiele interesujących informacji o koniach kladrubskich, historii, o nurtach w ich hodowli jaki i ilustracji w formie fotografii pokazujących słynne ogiery (General, Generalissimus, Sacramoso, Napoeleon) i klacze stadne z hodowli kladrubskiej.

o koniach:
(chody) skok, cwał, przecwał,
(konie wierzchowe) ciekun zwinny żartki
biegun zwinny żartki, sudany odlewnej kibici,
dobre gniazdo
wielka cudność i uroda
parepa, marcha, szewluch, bronowłoka
konie powodne, podjezdek, juczny,
 brożkowy, kotczy, kareciany