Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Elear form Abraham van Booth journal 1627 AD

I have been curious about the winged horsearcher sketched, amongst the whole array of our Polish army soldiers, by a Dutch artist Abraham van Booth  circa 1627, and then engraved and published in the Iournael, van de legatie, gedaen in de iaren 1627 en 1628.

He perhaps is an elear that 'worked' before a winged hussar banner/company, sort of 'clearing' the way.
In Polish military history there were cavalrymen called 'elear'/elier/eliar [Polish, singular] and a dictionary of Polish Language (1807 edition)  by Samuel Linde, in volume I on page 617, there is the following explanation of what an 'elear' meant:
''Elear - 'elier,' 'halier,' 'harcownik' (skirmisher), soldier who proceed an army before the battle, soldier sent   forward to give the enemy a quarrel [fight]. From Latin - eligere."
Then he quoted - " Eliers or haliers the best cavalry[men] were called, chosen from the entire army; who to cause the sensation of fear [amongst the enemy] while as a sign of better understanding [between themselves] with red ''binda'' or ''nałęcza'' (scarf)  their chests diagonally girdled."

 Another scholar Marian Czapski, working in the second half of XIX century,  in his work titled ''Historya Konia'' (The History of Horse) talks about the elears in volume II, drawing the name from a Hungarian word 'elore' that was to meant 'forward' thus perhaps this was a type of a skirmisher?

During the Rokosz Zebrzydowskiego  (in 1607) at the battle of Guzów the bravest soldiers were called elears and grouped together so when they charged the royal lines and penetrated them deeply, and one famous horseman amongst thus grouped elears of Janusz Radziwiłł (anti-royal camp) named  Hołownia went as far as the royal tent shouting ''Where is the  Swede" (the King was of Swedish origin) and there he paid the highest price for his daring and 'laesa maiestas'  by being killed.

Amongst the modern scholars,  Richard Brzeziński, in his groundbreaking work ('Polish Winged Hussar 1576-1775') in addition to discussing the elears in winged hussars' companies, provides two images from van Booth's 'Journael van de Legatie' (Amsterdam 1632) -  an engraved drawing and a black-white watercolour (one day I will turn to it in order to do some drawings etc).

Eliari dicti praestantiores equites ex toto exercitu selecti, ad audactorem impressionem faciendam, pro tenerra humeros rubris fasciis praecincti.
(Paweł Piasecki, Kronika, describing the Polish elears at battle of Bucov  on the River of Teleaeyn  in 1600).
Imci pan Samuel Linde w swoim słowniku 'Języka Polskiego' napisał był 200 lat temu -
''Elear - elier, halier, harcownik, poprzedzający woysko przed bitwą; żołnierz przodem wysłany, do dania zaczepki nieprzyjacielom. Z łaciny - eligere (Linde, tom I, strona 617) ''
Dalej pan Samuel podaje cytat: ''Elierami czyli halierami nazywano najprzedniejszą jazdę, wybraną z calego wojska, która na wrażenie trwogi, a na znak większego sobie rozrozumienia, czerwonemi bindami, czyli nałęczami, pierś na ukos przepasywała'' (tamże)
Imci pan Marian Czapski w ''Historii konia'' tom II pisze, że nazwa mogła także pochodzić od wegierskiej komendy ''elöre'' czyli 'naprzód' (strona 458).

O elearach, z ikonografią, w husarii pisze imci pan Richard Brzeziński w ''Polish Winged Hussar.''.
the van Booth's drawing engraved with my sketch of an elear worked over with the GIMP

and my another take on this elear, also manipulated with GIMP

 Now, the shield in the engraving looks a bit like the one carried by the Irish or like the English horsemen in Ireland during the late XVI century campaigns. The watercolour does not have this roundish shield, nor does the second elear sketched and engraved in the published journal.

more images from the same publication:

elears before the winged hussar comapany

a single elear

Healthy  New Year 2015

Polish winged hussar - toy - a closer look

Old Year 2014 is so close to pass the baton to the brand New Year 2015, so aptly we will take a closer look at the toy soldier (for kids and toy collectors) that I introduced in October, sculpted by my friend Grzegorz 'ducz' Kupiec and produced by Tissotoys from Poland.
A week ago I finally received a physical figurine into my happy hands and thus I can show you some photos of it, if you like to take a closer look.

It comes in a box, with a illustration of a old Polish castle in the background, the reverse of the box has plenty of info in 4 languages - there may be some confusion with the name as the makers decided to call this toy soldiers a Polish hussar, when in all languages this horse soldiers was and still is called winged hussar, and a hussar usually means a Hungarian cavalryman.

Now, the horse and rider were attached to the box with small plastic covered wires, so no injury to your little fingires when upacking :), and

you have to put the lance together, as it comes in 2 pieces , the shorter piece has to be put through the hole in the lancer's right hand.

lance- armed hussar before mounting


various angles

The horse stands firmly and does not wobble,  while the rider can play tilt with some other mounted lancers, my son has some Papo, Schleich etc knights & Saracen figurines, armed with lances so they do some lance-play in our children hands.
I hope the make more mounted toys:  more winged hussars, the Tatars, Polish pancerny, Muscovite riders and Swedish and German reitars.
enjoy :)
Happy New Year 2014

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Comanches - equestrian warlike feats - by James Hobbs

let us gallop over to the Great Plains of North America, and the XIX century writings of various military men, trappers, mountainmen and just travellers.

In this instance I would like to bring to your attention Captain James Hobbs of California(portrait taken from his opus magnum) who wrote the grand recollections of the Far West adventures aptly titled ''Wild Life in the Far West: Personal Adventures of a Border Mountain Man'' (1873).

Dear author, on pages 458-9, describes the Comanche mode of mounted fighting (not unlike Mr Catlin quoted already on this blog 12), he mentions a separate mount for war (war pony)or chase(hunting of buffalo/bison) also known famously as a buffalo runner :

There is one warlike feat in which all the Comanche warriors are trained from their infancy. As the man is dashing along with his horse at full speed, he will suddenly drop over the side of his horse, leaving no part of his person visible, except the sole of one foot, which is fastened over the horse’s back, as a purchase 'by' which he can pull himself to an upright position. 
In this attitude he can ride for any distance, and, moreover, can use with deadly effect either his bow or fourteen-foot lance. 

One of their favorite modes of attack is to gallop towards the enemy at full speed, and then, just before they come within range, they drop upon the opposite side of their horses, dash past the foe, and' pour upon him a shower of arrows directed under their horses’ necks, and sometimes even thrown under their bellies. All the time it is nearly useless for the enemy to return the shots, as the whole body of the Comanche is hidden behind the horse, and there is nothing to aim at save the foot just projecting over the animal’s back. 
Sometimes the Comanches try to steal upon their enemies by leaving their lances behind them, slinging themselves along the sides of their steeds, and approaching carelessly, as though they were nothing but a troop of wild horses without riders. A quick eye is needed to detect this ruse, which is generally betrayed by the fact that the horses always keep the same side towards the spectator, which would very seldom be the case were they wild and unrestrained in their movements.

Every Comanche has one favorite horse, which he never mounts, except for war or the chase, using an inferior animal upon ordinary occasions. Swiftness is the chief quality for which the charger is selected, and for no price would the owner part with his favorite steed. Like all uncivilized people, he treats his horse with a strange mixture of cruelty and kindness. While engaged in the chase, for example, he spurs and whips the animal most ruthlessly; but as soon as he returns, he carefully hands over his valued animal to his women, who are waiting to receive it, and who treats it as if it were a cherished member of the family.

the images enclosed are some of the rather fanciful engravings from the very book, some taken after George Catlin's paintings
*original spelling

Monday, December 29, 2014

Oporów Castle

last September I went to Poland and amongst several other sites and places (mostly Gothic and Baroque churches) I visited the grounds of the Oporów Castle -  unfortunately for me  this Medieval castle was closed for renovation (the museum should reopen in 2015, God willing).
There is a nice gallery at Wikimedia Commons - site, and I did take some pictures myself.

The brick castle was built by the second son of the voivode of Kujawy - chancellor of the Crown of Kingdom of Poland, and rather strong-headed archbishop of Poland  Władysław Oporowski, Sulima coat of arms, on the site of his ancestral stronghold (Oporów in the Dictionary of Kingdom of Poland, vol 7 p 564-5). The castle is quite lovely and unusual for our Central Poland lowlands, for  our monuments and architecture mostly having been destroyed by our kindly closer and more distant neighbours during our most friendly interchange, especially 1655-1720, 1772-1919, and 1939-45, plus not in a small part by our Communist overlords 1945-89.

enjoy the photos and do visit Oporów when in Poland -
most people seem to limit their  visit to the former German concentration camp industrial and genocide complex at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

last month I read one very interesting novel by David Kirk titled 'Child of Vengeance' - a fiction story dealing with the early teens of one of my most favourite Japanese history personage  Miyamoto Musashi - in the novel he is Bennosuke, son of samurai Shinmen Munisai, and who in this narrative has one hell of a coming-of-age story. I greatly enjoyed this novel, and hope for a second instalment...mind you I also have read this great Japanese novel (eng. translation) -  'Musashi' by Eiji Yoshikawa - and with my son we collect the Vagabond manga (comics) series by Takehiko Inoue.

A drawing by Musashi

Sketches & Concept Art

for the past month and a half I had been involved (thanks to Jan's suggestion to David Dunham) in a concept art drawing for a game titled Six Ages  - a sequel  to the famous  King of the Dragon Pass. ( site)
 I hope to do some more artwork for David et company, it was lots of fun and some hard thinking -  :) .
I finally got to draw some travois, chariots, and hence on my blog I will try to tackle some Yamnaya, Andronovo and later "Saka' chariots, wagons, horse people etc. But this will be in the future..

I had some Roman saddles on my mind and here are several pen and ink sketches of some Roman-like horse-riders.

The Old Year's coming to close,  for me it means that there are some more sketches to do before it  will have ended, 2 more days.

Monday, December 15, 2014

War bridle - Robert Jennings

long time  I wrote about the Comanche war bridle, I recently found some description of its usage and application in a book titled ''Horse-training Made Easy: Being a New and Practical System'' Robert Jennings (published in 1866 by Potter and Company in Philadelphia, USA).

the whole book is available via


Friday, December 12, 2014

Horses the Polonians ''adorne with rich Furres and skinnes'

back in the saddle again, so to speak, and let me start with a little excerpt from Fynes Moryson, that is from his rather merry recounting of his travels across Europe and Turkey, in this framgnet he is telling us his observations about Polish Kingdom and the inhabitants, i.e., Polonians -
Shakespeare’s Europe. Unpublished chapters of Fynes Moryson’s Itinerary Being a Survey of the Condition of Europe at the end of the 16th Century. edited by Charles Hughes, London 1903. p 83.  

The Polonians are a warlike nation, valiant, and actiue, but 
all their strength consists in their horse, whereof they haue so 
great number, as some affirme they can bring a hundred thou- 
sand horse into the feild, and one Prouince of Lituania, can 
bring 70 thousand, and king Stephen in the last age had 40. 
thousandmin his Army. Of these horsmen, some are called 
Hussari,mwho are armed with long speares, a sheild, a Carbine 
or short gunn, and two short swords, one by the horsmans syde, 
the other fastned vnder the left syde of his sadle. The light 
horsmen called Cosachi are armed with short swords, Jauelin, 
bowes and arrowes, and a Coat of maile and the whole Country 
of Poland being playne, this great body of horsmen must needs 
be a powerfull strength to the kingdome. The horses are of 
small stature, but of no lesse agility, then those of the Turkes 
and singuler in boldnes for any seruice of warr. Yet are they 
all made Gueldens; And the gentlemen are not prouder of any 
thing, then of their horses and horsmanshipp professing to 
weare long garments, as Commodious for horsmen, that they 
may cast their vpper garment vppon their horses when they 
are heated with running. And for this Cause many haue their 
bridles (Which are alwayes snafles by Which the horses are 
easily turned) sett with studds of gold or siluer, sometymes 
having gold Chaynes, and like ornaments at the cares of their 
horses, and Commonly paynting the mayne and taile yea the 
whole body, excepting the back of their horses with light 
Coulors, as Carnation and the like, therein seeming ridiculous, 
that whereas art imitates nature, these Coulors are such as are 
most vnnaturall for horses. They haue guilded stirropps as 
also spurrs which are some handfull long at the heele. Not 
only soldiers but Ambassadors and their gentlemen, haue the 
hinder part of their horse couered with the wings of an Eagle, 
or skinn of a Tyger, or leopard or some like ornament, either 
for beauty, or to seeme more terrible, as in generall all haue 
them couered, some lesse, some more richly. The Polonian 
horsmen restraine the incursions of the feirce Tartars, and 
seeme so bold to the Turkes, as they haue no hart to invade 
Neither can the Moscouites indure their assault, how- 
soeuer for feare of their Tyrant, they must be prodigall of their 
bloud. The Polonians haue no care to fortify Cittyes professing 
nothing more to be disgracefull then to fly from their enemyes, 
and vaunting to defend their Country with their owne brests, 
not with walled Townes which they lesse desyre to fortify lest 
their kings should vsurpe power ouer them by giving the 
keepingnof such places to their deuoted seruants.
 Fynes Moryson, An Itinerary Containing His Ten Yeeres Travell
through the Twelve Dominions of Germany, Bohmerland, Sweitzerland,
Netherland, Denmarke, Poland, Italy, Turky, France, England, Scotland
& Ireland. edited by Charles Hugher. Glasgow 1908.  v.4, p. 68.

       Poland aboundeth with beasts, aswell wild as tame, and yeeldeth excellent horses, not great, but quicke and stirring. Neither doe the Gentlemen more delight in any thing, then in their horses, so as they hang gold chaines and Jewels at their eares, and paint them halfe over with exquisite colours, but in that uncomely, that they are not naturall for horses, as the Carnatian colour, and their hinder parts they adorne with rich Furres  and skinnes of Lions and Leopards and the like, aswell to terrifie their enemies, as to adorne and beautifie their horses.        

 original spelling as in the Moryson's writings

Sunday, November 30, 2014

Kurz Journal - p. 4

last day of November 2014, so a little recollection by Mr. Kurz during his adventures in the United States (this time 1850 summer and 1851)
First, our author bought yet another horse, he named her Fashion:

'On August 7 I bought a dainty black mare with white feet —
all four white.
She is a genuine mustang. What a joy to wander
about the forest, where Fashion carries me to distances I could
not otherwise accomplish and so widens the sphere of my observa-
tions. With Fashion's aid I have been able to visit often the
Hundred-and-Two River (so named because it is said to be 102 miles
long), to bathe in its clear waters, to sketch groups of trees on its
shores that are hardly surpassed by those on the Cahokia.'

then Mr Kurz met the Potawatomis, who had been forced to migrate to Kansas from the Old Northwest:

''Potawatomi fromKansas and those on the land known as the
"PlattePurchase" visited one another frequently, I made sketches
of some of them and, in exchange, furnished the young fellows with
10-cent pieces of rods out of which they make arrows for the
hunting season.

'At 20 feet they hit small objects with great accuracy; at a greater
distance the least movement of the air may exert an adverse effect.
At 100 feet they fly the arrows with great skill but can not be sure
of piercing the heart of the animal.'

Later that autumn of 1850 Kurz decided to invest in horses and the following story developed:
''In the autumn newspapers began to publish articles about a plan
that was being considered by the United States Government, in con-
nection with the highway to California and Oregon, to enter into
negotiations with the Indian tribes concerned and for that purpose to
invite the most notable men among them to a conference next sum-
mer at Fort Laramie. At once it occurred to me that I might enjoy
an agreeable adventure and at the same time make it profitable
if I would occasionally buy good horses, ride about the country on
horseback, sell the animals at a profit next spring at Salt Lake, then,
on my return, attend, if possible, that most interesting assembly at
Fort Laramie and witness the signing of the treaty.
Then, of course, horses declined in value. I lost a great deal of
money. The cost of feeding the animals was out of proportion to
the amount their work brought me. I was too fond of them and
spent too much taking care of them.

One misfortune after another induced me to sell the horses and
give up the idea of going to Salt Lake.
First, I suffered the loss
of an excellent mare that I lent to an acquaintance who wished to
attend a Christmas ball at Rochester. After he had run a race on
a bet, after the manner of Americans, and over a rough, frozen road,
he left my fine animal standing in front of a public house all in a
sweat and without the protection of a blanket. In spite of all efforts
to save her, the mare died from pneumonia. I suffered another
mishap in a pasture where I allowed my four horses to exercise on
a beautiful March day. A boy took great delight in playing tricks
on the spirited animals and, to give himself further amusement, set
a dog on them just to see them run an extended course. Having
become once frightened, they did not stop running for several miles,
until they were far into the forest. After a long search I came up
with them at last but, as I drew nearer, calling gently to them, and
w'as sure of getting hold of at least one of them, Avhinnying, they
turned abruptly about, extended their legs, shook their manes and,
in a trice, had disappeared from view.
For the reason that Lily, one of my mares, appeared to be going
in the direction of the place where she had been bred, I thought I
should find all of them next morning at her old home. So early
in the day I hired a horse and rode over there, through a region
that was unfamiliar to me. My road, a most romantic one, led
through a magnificent forest, over two beautiful streams, and across
a waste. Not a trace of my horses anywhere ! Then I remained at
home two days, hoping that my runaways might be induced by
hunger to return or else that some news might come to me concern-
ing their whereabouts. But they did not return. No news came.
On the fifth day after their flight I hired another horse and rode
to the place where two other mares of mine had been bred, i. e., to
the "Round Prairie" on the high road to Fort Kearney near Newark.
There, fully 9 miles from the city, I heard specifically that they had
been seen. Fortunately, they had kept together and were so wild
and spirited that no one could catch them; otherwise I should cer-
tainly have lost one or the other. A young farmer who had seen
the two colts and knew the range of their earlier pasture mounted
his horse and helped me trace them. For several hours we followed
them from one farm to another. It was perfectly evident that they
wanted to play with their former companions and were searching
for them, and as the brutes went visiting around in their old neigh-
borhood and tarried here and there with their former playmates
we drew constantly nearer.

Still following the trace we came, late in the evening, into the
highroad again, where dust made it impossible any longer to dis-
tinguish their tracks.

Well, I spent the night in Newark. Next morning, the sixth day
of their "spree," I was up with the sun to follow any trace I might
find on the highway. Over a wide stretch I searched but could find
neither on the right nor on the left any tracks made by sixteen feet.
I did find a place beside the road where they had lain down together,
but on what night? That was a puzzle too difficult for my wits to
solve. My only possible clue was fresh dung. After breakfast I
mounted my hired pad with the intention of going home, hoping that
my straying animals would instinctively return, finally, to the place
where they had received good nurture and rich forage. Upon my
inquiry at a farm on the highway I was told that toward sunset the
previous evening four horses — according to the description, they
must be mine — were seen prancing along the way in the direction of

A little farther on, where the road from Marysville branches off
from the highroad to Fort Kearney, I heard from a countryman
living there that during the night four horses wanted to rest on the
straw lying in front of his fence, that the roan mare (my Bet) had
already lain down but, for fear that their presence might tempt his
own beasts to break out, he had driven them away. Which way they
went he did not know.

"Home, of course, to their own comfortable stalls," I said to myself.

I rode rapidly back to Savannah in happy expectation. There I
found no trace of my runaways' return. So, after I had eaten, I
had to mount a fresh horse and renew the search. Following my
latest clue, I rode until the evening in all directions, through forest
and over plain, without result. Vexed and tired, I returned to the
Savannah road. Suddenly I was aroused from my ill-humored
reverie by hearing some one call out as I was passing a farm,
"Hulloa, Dutchman!" Turning my head, I saw a man sitting on
his fence. He called out again, "Look here ! Are them your
horses?" Sure enough, there they were, evidently half -starved.
There was no grass. At best, they could only have fed on tender
buds just appearing on the shrubs. Besides, they had been racing
about the country without rest.
Several hours earlier, the man said, those hungry horses had
stopped at his fence, cast longing looks toward his stacks of corn,
and then made known their desires by an eager neighing. He took
them in, because he had heard that I was searching for them. The
birds were caught, to be sure, but I had trouble still to get them in
hand. So wildly they ran about, so persistently parried our efforts
on every hand, that I thought they must be possessed with the devil.

Finally we got them in a corner and held them in fear by cracking
a whip until I had bridled them. I saddled the filly, because she
remained uncontrollable longer than the others. Then I paid the
man for his assistance and set out home on a gallop. Never in my 
life have I ridden as fast; the horses seemed really running a race
with one another to see which could reach home first. I thought
I should he jerked off the saddle.

I had hardly got my team of four in good condition again when
they ran away with me and plunged with the vehicle down a hill.
To practice driving a four-in-hand and to accustom the horses to
that mode of traveling I took drives every day in the vicinity. I
got excellent practice on the usual American roads, for they abounded
in stumps, steep slopes, and many running streams, but to learn
how to manage with sloughs, ditches, narrow passes, curves, and
the turning of corners I chose the forest road to Nodaway Island,
to the Hundred-and-Two, and along the Little Platte River, all the
way out to the parade ground. The horses pulled so well together,
traveled with such uniform gait, were so instantly responsive to
the rein, always stood so quietly when halted, backed without plung-
ing, trotted so well without need of the whip, and the roan mare
proved such an excellent lead horse, I was planning with much
pleasure to take a journey with them to Deseret.

In April I drove alone to St. Joseph to talk over plans for the
journey with my future traveling companion. On my return, about
3 miles from Savannah, the offside horse cast a shoe on her left rear
foot. I stopped immediately, for she seemed to be limping. Since
no one was there to take the reins, I threw them lightly on the seat
cushion and went to examine the hoof. In spite of the care I took,
stroking her soothingly and speaking gently, the instant I attempted
to raise her foot she gave a leap and off and away all of them went
over stock and stone, up hill and down dale, as if in a mad pursuit.
I tried at once to seize the bridle rein of the lead horse but, in run-
ning, I stumbled over a stump and fell. When I got up I saw the
vehicle plunging on — here a cushion hurled away, there my cloak.
"Adieu, je t'ai vu!" I thought. "Confound it all!'

I ran after them, of course, as fast as I could. I had an idea
that they were stuck fast in the forest. Sure enough, below the
first hill, I found Bet wallowing in the dust, trying to get free
from the harness and the long lines that were wound about her.
Having set her free, I ordered her to get up. She could hardly
stand ! She was trembling in every limb and spread her feet wide
apart for fear of falling. She had lost her head entirely. I led
her away from the road and tied her tight and fast at a spot where
there was grass; then I went in search of the others. About a
hundred feet farther on I found Lily, Bet's companion, standing,
bewildered, in the road.

Aside from a wound in her left rear shank, inflicted, most likely,
by the jDole, she had suffered no injury. I swung myself lightly
upon her back and went on after the two shaft horses and the hack.
I found them at the top of the hist steep hill as one approaches
Savannah. Fortunately they could go no farther; they had hardly
come out alive from the creek below. The two horses were caught
in some bushes and the vehicle was jammed against a tree. The
horse on the right had thrown her hind leg over the pole and was
evidently forced to stop. The vehicle had most probably been car-
ried on until it was held fast by striking the tree trunk.

I disentangled the beasts from their harness to see what damage
had been done. Lily had suffered no injury — was only lamed. The
hack could stand on its wheels, to be sure, but many screws were
gone. I went back to bring Bet, the cushion, and my cloak. Then,
having harnessed Lily and the colt together, I led them slowly home.
The horses had to be cared for and doctored ; the vehicle and harness
had to be mended.   
Finally, at the end of April I was ready for my journey; my
wagon was provided with a canvas top and provisioned with zwie-
bach, smoked meat, butter, eggs, sugar, tea, cooking and drinking
utensils, oats and corn meal for the horses, a saddle, a double-bar-
reled shotgun, a hunting knife, and four 30-foot cords with iron pins.
The last-named were to be used for tying the horses.

My intended companion on the journey, a young American, was
to wait in St. Joseph and be ready to set out with me on the first
of May. Notwithstanding that he had detained me with his prom-
ises to go, Steiner refused, when I arrived in St. Joseph, to con-
sider taking the trip. He had not the means, he said, to provide his
own personal outfit. Now, I had asked nothing more of him than
that he bring his own provisions, and, in return for his seat in my
wagon, that he look after the vehicle on the journey, while I took
care of the horses.

A fine predicament! To travel with four horses and a wagon
alone was not to be considered, for both team and vehicle would
have to be constantly guarded. To find another trustworthy per-
son to go with me could not be done at once. Therefore, my grand
display with four-in-hand came to a sudden end. I determined
to sell both wagon and team. But now, when I wanted a purchaser,
nobody would buy. Earlier, when I did not wish to part with my
horses, I had many advantageous offers.

May 9. Lily and the colt sold in Weston. Bet placed on a farm
so that she may grow strong again. Such a fine mare one is justified
in giving the best attention ; she will certainly bring $60 more. The
wagon and harness as well as the large mare, Landy, left behind
to be sold, so that on my return I shall have some funds. Trip to
Salt Lake and Fort Laramie given up''
 ...thus ended this horse story

another tribal warriors of the Old Northwest - the Winnebago painted by Charles Deas during the 1840s