Monday, June 28, 2021

Beresteczko 1651-2021

 Salvete Omnes,

another anniversary this month - the gargantuan battle of Beresteczko 28-30th of June 1651 - 370th anniversary of the Polish-Lithuanian(Ruthenian) victory over the rebellious Cossacks and their allies - the Tatars.

Huge victory for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and like Grunwald Ad 1410, this victory in the field was not persecuted to the fullest in the subsequent campaigning, thus allowing the rebellious Cossacks and their Tatar allies to regroup and return to fighting during the autumn of the same year during the so called Biala Cerkiew campaign. C'est la vie - 

Number of combatants must have been huge - more than 80 thousand Polish-Lithuanian troops and national levy, perhaps 2 times as many of camp servants (ox cart and horse wagon drivers were at least as many as the number of those wagons)  on the royal side, and on the Cossack-Tatar side God only knows, more than the Polish-Lithuanian royal host.  So this battle may have been one of the largest of the XVII century.

His Royal majesty Jan II Kazimierz Vasa/Waza was the commander of the Polish-Lithuanian armies and he is the victor of this battle. The enemy commanders - Crimean Tatar Khan Islam Garay and Zaporozhian Cossack Bohdan Chmielnicki - were out maneuvered and their armies routed .

Prince Jeremi or Jarema Wisniowiecki, Korybut coat of arms, already famous for the Zbaraz defense  and his other actions during this terrible war, this time proved his martial prowess again and again, and he gained more fame for his actions during this battle. But he was not in favor with king Jan II, and nothing good came out of it.

Hail the victorious, memento mori to the fallen.

In the coming weeks or even months I will collect and write down  some of the army lists and some other interesting materials related to the battle, like the color of a Tatar horse price Boguslaw Radziwill, Traby coat of arms, captured during the third day of this herculean battle.  

to be continued


Sunday, June 27, 2021

Saint Longinus from Biecz - winged hussar kopia?

 Salvete Omnes,


a quick gallop in search of artefacts and imagery related to the famous Polish cavalry of the early modern period aka  winged hussars.

Biecz is a very old town in southern Poland, in the Little Poland historic province. It has been mentioned already in the early XI century, and circa 1257Ad became a town founded based  on the German law town privileges. Under king Kazimierz Wielki town became a seat of a royal starost,  and  the capital of Biecz county (abolished by the Austrian overlords following the First Partition of Poland and annexation of Biecz county in 1780s).


One of the most important monuments and active Roman Catholic church is the Corpus Christi Collegiate church in Biecz.

and inside this late Gothic -Renaissance church , above the entrance to the 'presbiterium' (presbitery aka chancel) there is a beam on which a Passion scene has been constructed. 


the Latin sentence is carved onto the beam -  Christvs Dominnvs Factvs est pro nobis obediens vsqve AD Mortem MDC XXXIX -  which could mean that the figures of this Passion scene were placed there around 1639AD?

One of the sculpted figures of this Passion scene portrays a Roman soldier aka Saint Longinus. 
but this is a XVII century Saint and hence he is dressed and armed like a winged hussar?
His kopia or lance with which is is piercing Christ's chest  is very much like the winged hussar lance of the period - very long and 'slender' looking, with the galka or apple/pomme ball-like handguard very close to the butt end

the kopia's dimensions and its appearance seem to support my hypothesis that actual winged hussar kopia had a rather short rear part, from galka to  butt end,  in relation to its entire length. 


unfortunately I have no good modern photo of this figure of Saint Longinus as winged hussar


I have no information if this kopia/lance has been studied by any Polish historians. Anybody knows?


Saturday, June 26, 2021

Polish Army at Batoh list - II

 Salvete Omnes,

galloping easily from the northern Great Plains of America to the Polish-Lithuanian southern lands and the sadness of Batoh 1652 disaster - continuing with Polish Crown Army Ordre de Bataille or OdeB.

Polish  historian Jan Wimmer , among many of this works, made a compilation of the Crown units during the period ( published in Studia i Materialy do Historii Wojskowosci, volume 5):

so these are the mounted harquebusier companies  within the army of field hetman Marcin Kalinowski-

1- Stanislaw Pogórski company --    94 horse

Stanislaw Pogórski, Ogończyk coat of arms - I have not yet found detailed info on this commander

1-Franciszek Mycielski company -    98 horse 

Mycielski, Dolega coat of arms, - yet to find more info on this commander

and two Pigłowski brothers, in the sources they appear as active cavalry commanders from the beginning of the Chmielnicki rebellion,  and their separate mounted harquebusier companies :

1-Krzysztof Pigłowski company -    90 horse

1-Jarosz Pigłowski company --        77 horse

                                                         In total 4 companies, 359 horse and portions

all these harquebusier companies were destroyed at the Batoh Wilds massacre


Saturday, June 19, 2021

Rosebud Creek fight - 1876-2021

 Salvete Omnes,

 on June 17, but 145 years ago in the Montana Territory a battle was fought between the Plains warriors  representing Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne bands on one side against general George Crook commanding  the so called Big Horn & Yellowstone expedition  consisted of  detachments of the US Cavalry and infantry aided by other Plains warriors of the Shoshone and Crow tribal bands. eg wiki page.

This battle is known as the battle of Rosebud or Rosebud Creek, but it is also known as the battle 'where the girl saved her brother.'


Northern Cheyenne Buffalo Calf Road Woman rescues her brother
Among the Cheyennes in this battle was Chief Comes in Sight, a brave man 
and a good fighter. His sister had followed him out to the battle.
 At the beginning of the fight he had charged the soldiers many times, and 
when they were fighting the upper group of soldiers, as 
he was riding up and down in front of the line, his horse was killed under him.
White Elk was also riding up and down the line, but was going in the opposite
direction from Chief Comes in Sight, and it was just after they had passed
each other that Chief Comes in Sight was dismounted. Suddenly White Elk saw
a person riding down from where the Indians were toward the soldiers,
pass by Chief Comes in Sight, turn the horse and ride up by him, when
 Comes in Sight jumped on behind and they rode off. 
This was the sister of Chief Comes in Sight, Buffalo Calf Road Woman 
(Muts i mi'u na')- 

The Cheyennes have always spoken of this battle by this name : 
"Where the girl saved her brother — 
Kse e' se wo is tan'i we i tat'an e." 
Young girl saved his life brother. 
[..] It was near where Comes in Sight was unhorsed that the 
Shoshoni with a spotted war bonnet was killed. 

on May 31, 1876 Crook's command consisted of -
Captain John V. Furey - chief quartermaster

Captain W.S. Stanton - the engineer officer for the expedition

dr. Albert Harstuff, assistant surgeon

15 companies of the 2nd and 3rd US Cavalry regiments - commanded by Colonel W. B. Royal

5 companies of the 4th and 9th Us Infantry regiments - Major Chambers commanding

there were 106 US Army wagons driven by teamsters  and additional 600 mules led by packers  also carrying supplies.

on June 14 some 261 Plains warriors joined the army command, that is this was a  contingent of the  Shoshone, brought to the camp  by Tom Cosgrove as US Army guide to the Shoshone and led by their chief  Old Washakie with his  85 warriors, and the 175 Crow warriors under various war-chief -including Plenty Coups, thus assembled to join the Crook's column in march, scout and fight.

 There were scouts who communicated between general Crook and the native allied warriors: Frank Gruard, Louis Richaud,, and Big Bat.

The entire Crook's command counted some 1,300 soldiers and warriors. 

The native defenders, i.e. about a thousand of the Lakota - Oglala, Minniconjou, Sans Arc, Brule, Hunkpapa etc-  and Northern Cheyenne warriors, apart from Wooden Leg, including Two Moon and Little Wolf -   under various chiefs and champions. It is said that the Oglala Lakota war leader or blotahunka Crazy Horse was the 'commander' of this native army, but we cannot say that for certain due to the nature of the Plains Indians warfare and their individual desire for glory and honor and martial deeds - the famous coup counting.

Archive world library has a military study(presented in partial fulfillment of the Master of Military Art and Science requirements) of the battle  by Richard I. Wiles - it is available for download or reading upon the site.
On the same site you can borrow many more books on the subject of this conflict and battle, which was a part of the so called Centennial Campaign of 1876.

there are various native accounts of this battle - eg Wooden leg - Cheyenne champion,  who might have discovered the invading column, and whose report lead to the first real scrimmage between a Cheyenne party under Little Hawk and the  entire encamped column on June 9th. 

Anyway, here you can have readily available accounts of the battle made by its participants, both US Army and native.

Famous Lakota warrior champion White Bull thus described, to Stanley Vestal, his attire that day:
'[..]a pair of dark blue woolen leggins decorated with broad stripes of blue and white beads, beaded moccasins, a long red flannel breech-cloth reaching his ankles, tucked under his belt over his regular loin-cloth, a shirt, over the right shoulder he had a thong  supporting a small rawhide loop (there were four small leather pouches of different kinds of earth medicine, a buffalo tail and an eagle feather) . around his waist he placed his folded black blanket and belted it with  his cartridge belt with a hundred cartridges. He borrowed a war bonnet from his brother in law, Bad Lake, it had a long tail of eagle feathers, while there were no feathers around the head of this bonnet. The bonnet had no protective powers and White Bull took it for its beauty. He was armed with his 17-shot repeating rifle.  He selected and saddled his fast horse, on its forelock and tail he tied an eagle feather, while the bridle-bit was adorned with an imitation scalp made from a woman's hair. Only horses which had been used to ride down an enemy could be adorned as such. Then he rode to his uncle Sitting Bull tent where the warriors were gathered.''*

White Bull sang a song -

''Friends, try your best

I do not wish my father to be made ashamed.

Because he is a chief''*

White Bull told a story of his personal encounter with a Shoshone warrior champion - 'he rode a fast bald-faced sorrel with white stockings, his horse tail was tied up in red flannel and a red flannel strip was tied about its neck. The Shoshone warrior had a cartridge belt and a repeating rifle'  White Bull killed the Shoshone's horse and counted a coup on the Shoshone warrior whom he lamed in the right leg, but this enemy survived the battle*


* Stanley Vestal, Warpath: The True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief White Bull - can be borrowed from library

Friday, June 11, 2021

Polish army at Batoh list - I

 Salvete Omnes,

continuing with Batoh battle and massacre topic


I am going to provide the list of known Polish banners and regiments at Batoh wilds May 31-June 2nd, 1652.
(compiled by  Polish historian Wojciech Jacek Dlugolecki in his book Batoh 1652) - 

                             Commander-in-chief - Crown Field hetman Marcin Kalinowski

today the heavy cavalry and our winged hussar banners and their commanders and/or owners:

 1.Crown Quartermaster (Obozny koronnyy) Samuel Kalinowski's banner,  commanded by 'porucznik'?(lieutenant) Sokolnicki - 116 horses and portions

2.Crown Field Hetman Marcin Kalinowski banner  - 150 horses

Stanislaw Zygmunt Druszkiewicz , Bozawola coat of arms, was a hussar companion in this unit and he survived this battle to have an illustrious career as ...a light cavalry commander during the later years well into the reign of our king Jan III Sobieski. Druszkiewicz wrote a diary published

3. Crown Standard-bearer Aleksander Koniecpolski's banner, commanded by Stanislaw Wyzycki - 150 horsess


Stanislaw Wyzycki

then a podstarosci perejaslawski (substarost of Perejaslaw) Stanislaw Wyzycki, Gieralt coat of arms,  survived this rout and massacre, and later commanded as a porucznik (lieutenant) winged hussar banners during the later wars eg at the great victory at Cudnow (1660), rising to a rank of regimentarz (Deputy Hetman) in a Crown Army. He was an elector of our king Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki, and then of Jan III Sobieski. A member of Sejm in 1676, died in 1680.

4.Crown Grand Marshal Jerzy Lubomirski's banner - 123 horses

5.Starost of Krasnystaw Marek Sobieski's banner - 85 horses

6.Starost of Sokal Zygmunt Dynhof(Denhoff)'s banner - 111 horses

7.Tobiasz Minor's banner - 75 horses

Tobiasz Minor of PrzybyslawicePolkozic coat of arms -   pan Tobiasz might have been present at Batoh, and certainly his winged hussar banner, that he had lead since 1649,  was annihilated there, but he survived, along with his much reduced cossack banner, and fought on at least until 1653, while his sons Aleksander and Jan continued military careers.
He was a seasoned soldier, fought at Orynin (1618), was not present at Cecora 1620 and Chocim 1621, but took part in the victorious  battle of Uscie 1629, where under the command of castellan and future field hetman Stanislaw Lancoronski, Zadora coat of arms, Crown forces defeated Tatars. During the Chmielnicki Rebellion he was active from the very beginning, and fought with distinction and bravery.

8.Castellan of Chernigov Jan Odrzywolski's banner - 63 horses

Jan Odrzywolski (1590-1652),Nalecz coat of arms,  was a famous Polish raider and cavalry commander of the Crown army, especially during the 1618-1625 period, eg he led a successful Crown army raid against the Tatars dwelling  the Pontic shore, in the Akkerman and Ochakov shore area.
He was a cossack banner commander during Stanislaw Zolkiewski's  Cecora campaign of 1620, and during the inconclusive battle he was on the right wing of the Crown army. Then when in the fighting withdrawal  he, along with famous raider Stefan Chmielecki and , abandoned Zolkiewski's war laager, broke through the Tatar encirclement and thus was saved, but it was not a honorable action on their part, and he might have lost his Crown Guard position as a result of his avtions. Historians are not certain if he was present at the battle of Chocim (1621), and perhaps he might have provided, again along Chmielecki, services as a commander of the smaller forces screening and deterring Tatars from raiding deeper into the Crown lands.
During the battle of Martynow (1624) fought with bravery and distinction against Kantemir  mirza , leading special advance units into the fray, and after the battle he, along with Chmielecki, commanded the special group organized by hetman Koniecpolski that kept pursing the defeated Tatars, inflicting serious casualties upon this elusive enemy. 
Later  being a professional soldier he also became a politician and a magnate, and eventually a senior army commander. Twice  he was a Sejm representative from Braclaw voivodeship in 1639 and 1642, became a senator (a castellan) and important southern Polish Crown personage, both in politics and military areas.

His command suffered a defeat inflicted on them by the Tatars during the victorious  battle of Kamieniec (22nd October 1633), battle won by hetman Koniecpolski . Working with the grand hetman he was trusted and often carried important tasks and duties, eg he organized hetman Koniecpolski's  war laager marching towards Ochmatow 1644, and during that battle he commanded the forward units that defeated the Tatars and then pursued  the Tatars all the way to their camp there, making important addition to the total victory there. 

During the Chmielnicki Rebellion he was a senior officer of the crown armies. eg fought at Korsun battle (1648),and during tactical Korsun withdrawal commanded the center of Polish war laager where he was taken prisoner by the Tatars. During the great battle of Beresteczko (28-30th June 1651) he commanded his own 'division' on the left wing of the Commonwealth army. Starting in 1637 he was the owner of one pancerny cossack banner and one winged hussar banner. 

During the battle  of Batoh (1-2nd June 1652)  he commanded, along with Marek Sobieski, the cavalry formations against the Tatars.
He was murdered on June 3, 1652 at Batoh.

Stanislaw Wyzycki - epitaph at the Bernardine church in Lviv

So in the Crown army under hetman Kalinowski there might have been 873 horse strong detachment of winged hussars. These banners were all but destroyed - according to the army rolls and registers for the 2nd and third quarter of 1652AD.

to be continued


Wednesday, June 9, 2021

Uhlans and lance circa 1760 -Anne Brown Military Collection

 Salvete Omnes,

a quick post - the Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection (Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library) contains a vast number of military-related images from various periods.
In this 13 print collection by Johann Georg Hertel and Carl August Grossman we can 'corral' 5 prints that may show the Polish cavalrymen (Lithuanian Tatars et al) in the service of the -Polish-Saxon kings up until 1763 (when Augustus III died and uhlan regiments were recalled). The date - 1765 - is approximately one year after for these cavalry units to have been returned to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where they were re-incorporated into the army.
these three are the most telling as to a hypothesis that they show Polish uhlans from the Saxon royal army:

So in these three prints we can see kurtka, kontusz, katanka, szarawary, dzida (lance),and old Polish customs of head shaving and bowing as a sign of respect - kronoskaf side dedicated to the 7 Years War has two of these lance-bearing regiments described and reconstructed via illustrations - here and here.  

Nota bene according to the  sources the first time these Polish-Lithuanian Tatar lance cavalry banner were called uhlan cavalry occured in 1735. Upon capitulation of the Saxon army at Pirna in 1754 our king had three uhlan regiments - Rudnicki (fully Czymbaj Murza Rudnicki), Renard (who replaced Bronikowski) and Wilczewski - in Polish Crown territory.  In 1756 two regiments - Rudnicki and Renard - marched to join the Saxon corps in the Hapsburg Austrian army (they participated in the famous raid on Berlin under general Hadik) , while Wilczewski's regiment stayed in Poland. During the war additional uhlan regiment was created and by the winter 1762 there were four  royal uhlan regiments - the commander of one, count Renard, returned with the Saxon royal troops to Saxony, and those four uhlan regiments were led by four commanders - Jozef Bielak, Mustafa Korycki, Jozef Chojecki and Ahmed Skirmott.*
Thus in the early Spring of 1763 the story of Polish-Lithuanian uhlans on the Saxon royal kings service ended, and they rejoined the Polish-Lithuanian armies.


*article by Grzegorz Szymborski, Jak Tatarzy ulanow stworzyli-historia polskiej fromacji wojskowej - many thanks Grzegorz.
Borawski Piotr, Tatarzy w dawnej Rzeczpospolitej, Warszawa 1986

Borawski&Dubinski, Tatarzy polscy. Dzieje , obrzedy, legendy, Warszawa 1986

 Ciesielski Tomasz, Armia koronna w czasach Augusta III, Warszawa 2009

Kryczynski Stanislaw, Tatarzy Litewscy, Rocznik Tatarski, vol.III, 1938

Trabski Maciej, Pulki przedniej strazy wojska koronnego w latach 1768-94.  Chorzow 2012

Thursday, June 3, 2021

Hiob Ludolf - vision of Batoh AD 1652


the very first days of June always bring  to my memory  some unhappy recollections  about one of  the most tragic and terrible military debacles in our Old Polish military history.

Namely, the war between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the rebellious Zaporozhian Cossacks supported by their allies  - the multiple Tatatar hordes (Crimean, Nogay, Budjak etc) - had been suspended since the Biala Cerkiew agreement of September 1651. The agreement was a compromise, since the Polish forces failed to route and destroy the rebels, while the rebels were to weak to continue the campaign.
One of the conditions of this agreement was the return of the Jews to the Cossack-held Ukraine, as proper Commonwealth citizens and erstwhile managers of noble estates and places of lodging and drink.
Our Sejm (Diet) or parliament failed to ratify the agreement, due to the very first formal liberum veto by the infamous Wladyslaw Sicinski took place in the Spring of 1652, while ataman Chmielncki and his councils continued to rebuild their forces destroyed at the Beresteczko route of 1651 and defeated at Biala Cerkiew in the fall of 1651.
Thus this rather very tenuous status quo existed in south and south eastern voivodeships of the grand Commonwealth, sort of a silence before a storm.
Polish Crown forces, or the professional state army, were stationed roughly in four divisions - one in Zadnieprze (Left-Bank Ukraine), Kijowszczyzna (Kijov Voivodeship on both sides of the Dniepr river), in Podole (Podolia) and Braclawszczyzna (Braclav voivodeship).   

Ataman Bohdan Chemilnicki spent the entire winter rebuilding his forces and secured alliances of the Crimean and other Tatar hordes for the late Spring and Summer campaign in the principality of Moldavia, on the south-western border of the Commonwealth, where  Chmielnicki wanted to marry his son Timofiej( Тимофій, Тиміш, Тимош Хмельницький ) to a daughter of prince Bazyli Lupu ( Vasile Lupu ).

So, in the Spring of  1652 on the grassy plain near the banks of the river Boh (southern Bug) known as Batoh uroczysko (wilds), Bracalw voivodeship, Malopolska (Little Poland) province, our Crown field hetman Marcin Kalinowski, Kaliowa coat of arms, ordered a concentration of the Crown army 'pulks' and by the late May  commanded this  very spacious and  large 'laager' or war camp of  Polish Crown army, however only his own Braclawszczyzna or Braclaw division was present and his sub-commanders and officers were still streaming down from Kamienic Podolski, Winnica and other towns of the region when the first elements of the enemy were aporaching the banks of Boh river.
Many historians studying this conflict (Polish-Cossack, Tatar and Muscovite war 1648-66AD) gathering and digesting the surviving sources, that one must say are very scant and often conflicting,  conclude that our field hetman was thinking to  intercept the Cossack army going into Moldavia, while also he was intent on marrying the Lupu's daughter as proposed by the Moldavian prince -  part of the so called Moldavian 'adventures' in Old Poland history. 

The Crown army, 12 thousand soldiers-strong plus probably as many or more thousands of armed camp servants, families and camp follower, encamped in a very large campo on the Batoh  uroczysko(wilds) and cognizant of the Cossacks and  Tatar hordes coming. Yet  for some reason the river fords, as Boh river was rather difficult to cross in the late Spring, were left withour strong points to defend them, and  Kalinowski's  command failed to do diligent reconnaissance about the whereabouts of the enemy, and failed to protect and deny the oncoming enemy division Boh's ford crossing.
  Moreover, the Braclaw division of the Crown army seemed to lacked cohesion, spirit de corps and especially respect for the commander-in-chief (not dissimilar to the Cecora debacle of 1620AD) and could not win  this incoming struggle with the commander as unprepared as our field hetman Kalinowski  and his command. 

So  in  the battle that was fought  on June 1 and 2, AD 1652 on the Batoh wilds,  this Kalinowski's Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Crown army was defeated and routed by the allied Zaporozhian Cossack-Crimean Tatar army on late June 2nd,  the sources even talk about some rebellion against the commander, and the unprepared Polish laager was taken, leading to the death of the Polish commander and thousands of his soldiers and their camp servants. However, a part from the killed in action Polish soldiers and their camp servants  there were many thousands of experienced Crown army soldiers and their camp servants  from their retinues who  were taken prisoner by the Chmielnicki's allied Crimean, Budjak and Nogay Tatars.   As the defeated army was mostly  taken prisoner, with actual field losses were about a thousand or two thousand soldiers killed, Bohdan Chmielnicki had the commander of the Crimean Tatars Nurradin soltan paid  a fixed sum, some sources say 50  thousand gold thalers, for the Polish prisoners and then had the Nogay Tatars kill with utmost cruelty the hapless Polish noble prisoners
Thus in  the aftermath of this Polish defeat and rout, the  rebel ataman (commander) and political leader Bohdan Chmielnicki had the Polish prisoners,  taken prisoner by the various Tatar parties slaughtered by the Nogay Tatars.  During the 3rd and 4th of June 1652 Nogay Tatars and murderous Cossacks slaughtered shackled and tied up Polish prisoners, and hunted those who were hiding among the Crimean Tatars and surrounding woods and other hiding places in the hills, ravines and gulches of the Braclaw and Podolia countryside.
The lists of the murdered were/are long - perhaps as many as 8000 men were murdered cruelly.
Among the executed prisoners was a soldier of the greatest expectations - Krasnystaw starost Marek Sobieski, Janina coat of arms - and  the older brother of our future king Jan III Sobieski.

The commander of the infantry and artillery, general Zygmunt Przyjemski, Rawicz coat of arms, and the defender of the camp was cruelly murdered too, along with  young Kalinowski's son Samuel and thousands of others.
The ever pecuniary and slave hunting Crimean Tatars hid some of the Polish prisoners, and later exchanged them for hefty ransoms and thus some Polish  participants of this battle lived to tell their story.
The remaining  thousands of  Polish camp followers - women and children-  were taken by the Tatars and then either retained in the Crimean, Budjak or Nogay slavery or sold into slavery to the Crimean and Istanbul  slave dealers - the Jewish traders - to be resold in the more distant Ottoman slave markets. 

Hiob Ludolf, a scholar working in Frankfurt, in his published work added this illustration showing the imagined scene  of this atrocious killing of Polish prisoners and captives.


I may write more about the sources describing this battle, some of them were written by winged hussar participants (8 banners of Crown winged hussars were destroyed in this debacle) or pancerny-cossack cavalry companions (many more pancerny Crown banners were annihilated in this battle).

Batoh massacre of 1652 AD sadly was not the last event of mass murder of the Polish military elites in our history, the most infamous being the series of massacres collectively known as the Katyn Forest Massacre of 1941AD.


Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Alexander Sauerweid

Salvete Omnes,

today, new month of June, I would like to bring to your attention the brushwork et al. of Alexander Sauerweid, (1783-1844), a prolific European artist from  Kurland (Baltic vassal state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1561-1795AD, and then annexed by Russian Empire and nowadays is part of Latvia). Alexander, disciple of the famous Dresden Academy of Fine Arts, made a trek around Napoleonic Age Europe and upon the invitation of tsar Alexander I of Russia  became an instructor at the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts.
Alexander painted  portraits of Napoleon's horses - the French emperor had more than a hundred horses at his disposal when on war footing.

in 1807 he drew the Russian Imperial Army - here  one image of the Russian lancers via archive 

In 1810 he drew soldiers and uniforms of various armies - made available on line via the Napoleon Series archive:
- the Westphalian Kingdom army  eg lancer

 - the army of Kingdom of Saxony  (then in union with Duchy of Warsaw), at that moment in its swan song, soon to be 'dismembered and swallowed' by Prussia. 

  - then again Alexander did plates showing the Saxon army of 1811


horses  and officers of the Russian army eg

Artnet collection of his works - 

Battle of Leipzig 1813